Tag Archives: NT abattoirs

Yuendumu

Yuendumu is located approximately 280km north west of Alice Springs. This post includes a brief overview of aboriginal and european occupation, conflicts and difficulties faced by the people who lived in the area. Yuendumu settlement operated a pastoral activity and attempted to establish a meat processing facility to support the local community.

 

Current Operation

  • Closed

Location

  • Yuendumu is approximately 300km north west of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory
  • Abattoir facility itself was located about 20km out of the township

Yuendumu

Yuendumu. #2

Owner

  • NPC1

Operation

  • Slaughterhouse was established 1990 to supply meat to local community and income to the cattle operation of NPC.

Acronyms

  • ADC      Aboriginal Development Commission
  • ATSIC   Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission
  • BTEC    Brucelloisis Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign
  • CAAPA  Central Australian Aboriginal Pastoralist Association
  • DAA      Department of Aboriginal Affairs
  • DEET    Department of Employment, Education and Training
  • DEIR     Department of Employment and Industrial relations
  • IAD       Institute for Aboriginal Development
  • NPC       Ngarliyikirlangu Pastoral Company

History

Pre 1800’s

  • Yuendumu is situated on Ngalia Warlpiri country (Pg 246)
    • Evidence supports that continuous occupation has occured for 10,000 years (Pg 246)
    • Main land owning group is Walpiri (Pg 248)
    • People moved extensively for hunting and gathering, withdrew to core areas of importance at watering points in dry periods and extended over very large areas in better seasons.(Pg 249)
    • Walpiri maintained close relationships with other clans to north, east – Kurinji and Anmatyerre, Pitjantjatjara and Pintubi (Pg 249)
    • Walpiri discriminated against Arrernte tribes.(Pg 249)

1873

  • Warburton expedition crossed the Tanami and came into contact with Warlpiri people (Pg 250)

1890’s

  • Commencement of pastoral settlement increased contact with aboriginal people (pg 250)

1900’s

  • Granite goldfields commenced, a series of wells were established between Granites and Hooker Creek (Pg 250)
    • relationships not always cordial with aborigines.(pg 250)

1914

  • Gold reserves had petered out (Pg 250)

1920

  • Pastoral lease uptake increased to the north and far west (Pg 251)
  • Conflict with aborigines increased (Pg 251)

1928

  • Coniston massacre occurs (Pg 251)
    • 28 Warlpiri die as a result of an avenge attack by police and pastoralists in retaliation of the death of a non-aboriginal dingo hunter.(Pg 251)

1932

  • More gold is discovered at the Granites. (Pg 251)
  • Several pastoralists open up mining ventures for wolfram and gemstones.(Pg 251)

1940’s

  • Reports of Aboriginal peoples state of living in the Tanami region build pressure to establish an Aboriginal reserve in the area.(Pg 251)
  • Reverend of Baptist union wanted resumption of whole of Mt Doreen station lease.
    • lengthy negotiations, interrupted by WWII

1946

  • Yuendumu reserve 2,200 km square was established (though not declared until 1956) (Pg 256)
    • Area was selected  because a bore had established permanent water (Pg 256)
    • land was in immediate vicinity to a bore on unoccupied crown land (Pg 256)
    • Country not particulary suited to cattle (Pg 256)
    • Later 137 sq miles was transferred from reserve to Mt Allan pastoral lease (Pg 252)
  • Yuendumu welfare settlement was established.
    • to settle nomadic Aboriginal groups under the Aboriginal affairs policy of assimilation (Pg 252)
    • to provide social welfare of Aboriginal people, train them in non-aboriginal skills so they may be assimilated into non-Aboriginal society (pg 252)
    • Policy objectives was training and employment for work within and outside the settlement (Pg 252)
    • Also to provide administration, health, education and general development functions
  • Cattle project was included with (pg 252)
    • garden (vegetable growing)
    • piggery
    • poultry
    • Aim to increase self sufficency
    • Cattle enterprise started with 200 head (Pg 254)
  • Initial population 400 people (pg 252)

1960’s

  • Population now over 1,000 people (pg 253)

1967

  • Rations and cash allowance replaced by Training allowance Scheme (pg 255)
    • Scheme – in lowest form, was less than dole
    • Scheme – in highest level paid less than award wages
    • Settlement residents received free basic health service, education and subsidised meals from communal kitchens
    • Some residents received free rudimentary housing

1970

  • NT Social Welfare Branch annual report state there is (Pg253)
    • well established garden
    • bakery
    • store
    • mining company
    • housing association and a school council

1972

  • Settlement was under administrative control of NT Social Welfare Branch (Pg 253)
    • Superintendent on advice from village council
    • Village council were representative body of all skin groups living in Yuendumu
  • Labour government election announce Aboriginal affairs policy of self-determination (Pg 253)
    • beginning of major structural changes in administration and development
  • Moves made to incorporate the cattle project as a pastoral company (pg 253)
    • Cattle herd now 3,500 head
    • Particularly good grass seasons 1967-1972 (Pg 255)
    • Further growth was limited by lack of reliable water sources
      • at this time only had 2 reliable bores and 1 dam for the entire herd
    • Management had varying degrees of pastoral industry expertise
    • Income from cattle sales was not paid to community but into Consolidated revenue(Pg 254)
      • lack of incentrve to sell cattle, meant very low turnoff of animals (Pg 255)
    • Expenses were paid from cash and rations under Settlements administration therefore not reliant on cattle project (Pg 254)
    • Capital development for all projects  was reliant on annual budget priorities.
      • Funding priorities depended on Canberra / Darwin
    • Cattle project goal was to maximise employment, train men in pastoral skills and provide fresh meat to the community (Pg 255)
  • Department of Aboriginal Affairs (DAA) was primary employer of all people (Pg 267)

1974

  • Crash of beef prices. No cattle turned off during the period 1972-75.(Pg 257)
  • Only killers for kitchen, averaged 2 per week (Pg 258)
  • Seasons had been very good 72/73 – meant herd numbers built rapidly (Pg 258)

1977

  • Privatisation occured of some activities that previously had been under control of the Social Welfare divisions (Pg 130)
  • Bakery, garden, poultry farm and kitchen had ceased operation by this time.(Pg130)
  • Muster was conducted of Yuendumu and neighbouring property, Haasts Bluff. 850 prime bullocks sold when trucked to Adelaide. Gross return of $720,000, None of the funds went to the cattle enterprise (Pg 260)
  • Yuendumu is declared Aboriginal land under the Aboriginal land rights Act 1977 (Pg 262)
    • NPC couldn’t access mainstream rural finance (Pg 262)
      • Authors note – When Aboriginal land is alienated freehold it is not able to be sold. It can’t held as security for loans, therefore can’t be used as security for debt repayment.

1978

  • Annual cost of training allowance for cattle enterprise $80,000 (Pg 255)
  • Trucking and drafting yards were gradully built from scrap steel from government dumps (Pg 266)
  • NPC employed 12 stockmen (Pg 265)
    • high levels of employment numbers were maintained through cattle sales, labour programs and funding.

1979

  • Ngarliyikirlangu Pastoral Company (NPC) is formed (Pg 259)
    • 6 directors with 60 shareholders
    • All government assets were sold except the cattle (Pg 260)
    • NPC commenced operations with a tractor, trailer and approximately 3500 head of cattle.(Pg 261)
    • Enterprise grant was applied for – $55,000 79/80 (Pg 261)
    • Stock mortgage was raised $20,000 (Pg261)
    • Stockmans wages were to be paid from cattle sales.(Pg 261)
  • BTEC begins (pg 261)
  • Significant tension arose as company directors of NPC used vehicles for personal use (Pg 263)
    • highlighted critical tension – rights of the land owner over an enterprise taking place upon his and other descent group lands (Pg 263)
    • Cattle sale money was thought it should be split between directors and shareholders
      • misunderstood the link between income and costs – owners thought “funny business going on” (Pg 263)
      • community people were taking killers without payment to the company (Pg 264)

1980

  • NPC employed 20 stockmen (Pg 265)

1981

 

  • Cattle enterprise was (Pg 266)
    1. bantail mustering
    2. culling old stock
    3. testing and ear tagging young stock (BTEC)
    4. developing internal paddocks
    5. improving monitoring of waters
    6. regularly testing for disease free status
  • NPC was one of the few aboriginal properties to not be issued with compulsory destocking order (pg 266)

 

1981/82

  • IAD began to advise on property development (Pg 266)

1983

  • Feasibility study concluded that the property had insufficent waters to develop herd to 5,000 – 6,000 head.(Pg 266)
    • Alternative development options were suggested.
    • Develop herd to 5,600 head.
    • establish more bores, paddocks and yards, estimated to cost $283,000
    • build a community abattoir and a butcher shop, estimated to cost $21,500
    • restocking and operational costs estimated to cost $355,000
  • NPC felt it was in a positition to be commercially viable and achieve its development aims (Pg 269)
  • DAA was subumed to private and public organisations. (Pg 267)
    • now eleven organisations employing 73 Aboriginal people
    • created confusion, political rivalry and conflict in Yuendumu
  • Number of outstations were being established at Yuendumu (Pg 268)
  • Negotiations commenced over royalities relating to goldfields in Tanami (Pg 268)
    • Directors began to take less interest in cattle operations (Pg 273)
  • Advisory service of IAD was withdrawn and as funding was based on IAD feasibiltys study funding was withheld.(Pg 270)
  • Significant conflict in the community 1983 – 1996 major disputes as to the role of the council and local governement (Pg 276)

1985

  • Central Australian Advisory Pastoralist Association (CAAPA) was formed (Pg 270)
    • acted as lobbyist for Central Australian Pastoralists
    • Limited property development advice
    • no accounting or training services provided
    • accepted IAD study
      • NPC applied for development funds $706,000, over 5 years.
      • Application was unsuccessful based on land capacity (Pg 271)

1985/86

  • NPC received a capital grant of $37608. (Pg 271)
  • DEIR continue support through community employment program (Pg 271)
    • enables 19 full time and 24 casual employees to be maintained.

1986

  • Concerns raised by Central Land Council  as to Yuenduma land resource ability to support a herd of 5,600 head (Pg 269)
    • CLC calculated a safe stocking rate of 1,000 – 1,500 head (Pg 269)
    • NPC access to funding was now been seriously affected (Pg 269)

1988 / 89

  • CAAPA management was being questioned (Pg 274)
    • questionable individual grants to cattle stations
    • Alledged funds allocated to NPC were used by a CAAPA employee to purchase personal paintings (Pg 274)
    • Audit could not account for $70,000
    • CAAPA was investigated, wound up and no further action was taken by ATSIC

1990’s

  • Hawke-Keating Governments introduced form of local government called community government
    • This had been opposed by land councils – come leadership became more focused on structure of community organisations and less on delivery of service issues.(Pg 170)
    • Result was that community operated cattle stations depended on who from their families was represented in community councils (Pg170)
    • Allies of the cattle company – Ngarliyikirlangu were on council – in kind support of bulldozers and graders was available for dam building (Pg170)
      • when council had people not interested in cattle operation there was no support for it.(Pg170)
    • Proliferation of Commonwealth and NT agencies serving communities (Pg171)
      • singnificant lack of co-ordination between them (Pg171)
      • An aboriginal community pursuing pastoral activities to attempt to conduct a whole of property development program needed to consult and negotiate with 4-5 Commonwealth and NT agencies. (Pg 171)

Agencies consulting_edited-1Source – Black Pastoralism S Phillpot 2000 (Pg 172)
Agencies consulting with Aboriginal communities

  • All employment funding is withdrawn (Pg 271)
    • reason of withdrawal – funding is meant to be directed at economically viable projects (Pg 271)
  • Ministers letter to NPC advise that $1.2M has been invested over last 10 years (Pg 271)
    • NPC dispute and say it was only $670,000 (Pg 271)

1990

  • Employment is reduced to only 1 employee plus manager (pg 275)
  • Abattoir is developed (Pg 272)
    • Licensed slaughterhouse built from a grant from ATSIC and training subsidies from DEET (Pg 276)
    • Over first 14 months of operations employs 4 different trainers (pg 272)
    • no aboriginal trainees were able to complete training programs in meat processing (pg 272)
    • 1993-1996 no training is conducted (pg 272)
  • Abattoir operation(Pg 276)
    • became a major cash flow for NPC
    • was difficulty in employing qualified butchers to train Warlpiri butchers
      • slaughterhouse was not well maintained

1993

  • Manager was unemployed by NPC, continued to run the operation while on unemployment benefits (pg 275)
  • Herd numbers to now below 3,000 head (Pg 275)

1994 / 95

  • Beef prices collapse.(Pg 273)
    • NPC can’t turn off enough cattle to cover interest on debts

1996

  • Department Primary industries advised that facility didn’t meet the new Australian Quarantine Inspection service standards (Pg 276)
  • NPC is currently unviable, Owes Yuenduma Mining Company $150,000, secured by 1,500 head of cattle. (Pg 281)
    • Throughout its operation 1972 – 1996 NPC never made a profit or achieved economic viability (Pg 282)

1997

  • 1st January – slaughterhouse lost its licence (Pg 276)
    • Possible if the slaughterhouse had been successfully operated it would have enabled NPC to achieve a profit (Pg 282)
  • NPC business effectively was only sustained by the benevolence of its major creditor – Yuendumu Mining Company (Pg 276)

Sources

All references –

Black Pastoralism – Contemporary Aboriginal Land Use – The experience of Aboriginal owned pastoral enterprises in the Northern Territory – 1972 – 1996  Stuart Phillpot. 2000.

 

 

Palumpa. NT

Palumpa is an aboriginal community SW of Darwin, operating a pastoral property the abattoir is of vital economic importance to the property as it supplies meat to the local community.

Other Names

  • Wadeye abattoir
  • Port Keats abattoir

Current Operation

  • Currently in operation

Location

  • Palumpa is an aboriginal owned pastoral station 230 km south west of of Darwin, located near a town called Wadeye in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf. Community living area originally known as Palumpa is now called Nganmarriyanga.

Palumpa #1

Palumpa #2

Owner

Operation

  • Processes 20 head of cattle a week1

History

1980’s

  • Palumpa Pastoral Property was originally established as an offshoot of Port Keats Mission (pg 316)3
  • Property Established as a private company (Pg 333)3
    • directors largely represent the traditional owners of the area4
    • For long periods the station was the only provider to the services of the developing community4
  • Property is situated on some of the best Pastoral land in the Port Keats / Daly River area. (Pg 316)3
    • Covers a wide variety of country.(Pg 399)3
    • Average grazing capacity 1 beast to 50 hectares.(Pg 399)3
    • Takes 5-7 years to produce a 500kg animals (Pg 399)3
    • Run relatively small herd compared to the district commercial grazing average (Pg 399)3
    • Land is low grazing capacity and wet season limits production (pg 399)3
  • Major reason for success was the estalishment of domestic abattoir to provide meat to surrounding communities.(Pg 316)3
  • Palumpa Properties main support was the community of Port Keats.(Pg 316)3
  • Initial capital investment of abattoir operations was provided by the NT government(Pg 343)3

1990

  • Until 1990 Palumpa had been able to access loan and grant funding from Aboriginal Development Corporation (ADC) and Aboriginal Torees Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) (pg 316)3

1993

  • Palumpa property title at this time is Aboriginal freehold.3
    • Land area Size 1,150 sq km.(Pg 329)3
    • receiving ATSIC or other enterprise support at this time (pg 329)3
    • Operated under CDEP program (Pg 329)3
    • 3 community services were available (Pg 329)3
    • Had a non-local manager (Pg 329)3
    • Employed 4 people (Pg 329)3
  • Herd Size of Palumpa property 3,700 head (Pg 329)3
    • Carrying Capacity 10,000 head (Pg 329)3

2000

  • Palumpa Pastoral property is of sufficent size to support the abattoir processes (Pg 316)3
  • Employ 5 people on the property and 7 in the butcher shop (Pg 316)3

2007

  • Facility is cited in a report to be in operation at this time (Pg 14)2
  • Demand for MSA (Meat standards Australia) is not an issue for indigenous communities, therefore these small abattoirs don’t compete with product from southern Australia.(Pg 14)2

2008

  • July. At this point in time there are two other abattoirs operated on communities that are Aboriginal owned5
  • September. Indigenous Land Corporation have acquired 221 properties across Australia since 19956
    • Manage 70,000 head of cattle on various Aboriginal held stations6

Sources

  1. Managing Indigenous Pastoral Land. Module 9. 14/025
  2. ‘A pre-feasibility study of supply and demand issues for multi-species abattoir in Northern Australia’ G Niethe. 2009.
  3. ‘Black pastoralism – Contemporary Aboriginal land use’ S Phillpot 2000
  4. NT Place Names register. Accessed 26.01.2015
  5. ‘Rare bush abattoir’ ABC Rural 07.07.2008
  6. ‘Cattlemen muster pride’ The Australian 22.09.2008

Kalkarindji. NT

A small domestic processor located on an Aboriginal remote community, processes locally bred cattle to sell meat mainly to local communities.

Other Names

Current Operation

  • Currently in operation.

Location

  • Kalkarindji is an Aboriginal community located on the Buntine Highway 350 km south west of Katherine.

Kalkarindji. #1

KalkarindjiSource – Hema Maps.

Owner

Operation

  • Processes locally grown short horn cattle a week1
  • Uses a bolt action gun to kill the animal1
  • Process the animal by laying in a cradle to dress the carcase.1
  • Supplies communities in the Victoria River District with meat.1
  • Supplies Kakarindji store, Yarralin, Pigeon Hole and Lajamanu2

History

2008

  • July. At this time there are 2 other Aboriginal owned abattoirs operating in communities3
  • September. Indigenous Land Corporation have acquired 221 properties across Australia since 19955
    • Manage 70,000 head of cattle on various Aboriginal held stations5
  • December. Current butcher – Jason Scadden, has been working at the facility for 11 years.1
  • On kill days 2 other workers help.1
  • After slaughter the animal is laid on a cradle to skin, legs and gut1
  • Facility has a ban saw, mincer and sausage maker1
  • Meat is wrapped, packed and priced.1
  • Goes to the shop in Kalkarindji or other communities.1

2014

  • Is unsatisfied demand for local beef in northern Australia local communities, mining and tourism.2
  • Involvement in meat processing by Indignous communties could develope local beef processing facilities.2
    • Oenpelli abattoir (NT) – more commonly known as Gunbalanya, kills 30 head a week is currently operating.2
    • Palumpa (NT), kills 20 head a week is currently operating2
    • Mataranka (NT) – partially built but has been abandoned.
    • Peppimenarti (NT) proposed.2

2017

  • Oenpelli abattoir is closed4
    • No reason is given by the operator – Australian Indigenous Agribusiness Company4
      • Indigenous Land council newly formed subsidiary that is federally funded4
        • ILC lease and run  Gunbalanya station and meatworks under a 15 year lease agreement4

Sources

  1. ‘Touring a remote abattoir’ ABC rural. 15.12.2008
  2. Managing Indigenous Pastoral Land. Module 9, Small scale abattoirs. 14/025
  3. ‘Rare bush abattoir’ ABC Rural 07.07.2008
  4. ‘Local meat shortage, families without income ahead of christmas….’ ABC Rural 22/12/2017
  5. ‘Cattlemen muster pride’ The Australian 22.09.2008

 

Bond Springs (NT)

More commonly known as Wamboden abattoir, located 30km north of Alice Springs. This facility processes camels.

Other Names

  • Wamboden abattoir

Current Operation

  • Facility can process cattle and camels.
  • Company operating – Centralian Gold2

Location

 

 

Owner

  • G Dann.1

Operation

  • Wamboden abattoir is located 30 kilometres north of Alice Springs

Bond Springs.

History

1995

  • Central Australian Camel Industry Association (CACIA) is formed to develop markets for trade in live camels and camel meat.4
  • Estimated population in Australia of feral camels in 1995 – 500,000 head4
  • Northern Territory feral camel population estimated to be 60,000 head.4

Camel map, 1995._edited-1Source www.camelsaust.com.au. 24/01/2015
Distribution of Feral camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Australia 1995 (shaded lighter orange)

  • Camels to be processed at an abattoir are required to be4
    • between 3-10 years old4
    • < 400kg, >600kg. Larger animals can’t be handled.4
    • Camels must have previous handling before transported to abattoirs.4
    • if killed when stressed the meat will be darker, taste poorly and not have a good shelf life.4
    • Bulls are not to be in rut (in season), they have a concentrated body odour which makes the meat not fit for human consumption4
    • Cows in final stages of pregnancy must not be sent to the abattoir and cows recently calved will be rejected.4

2008

  • Northern Territory population of feral camels now estimated to be 250,000 – 300,000 head5
    • Located over 875,000 square kilometres of southern NT5
    • Causing significant damage to the environment, degradation of wetlands, destruction of vegetation5
  • Caring for Our Country initiative – 4 year national project – Australian Feral Camel Management Project (AFCMP)5.
    • reduce the numbers of feral camels commencing 2009/20105
    • Aerial culling5

2010

  • February. Contract possibly to be signed to supply up to 50 tonnes of camel meat a week2
    • Slaughter about 400 camels per week2
      • boning and processing to be conducted in South Australia2
    • Supply Australian domestic markets2
      • 10% of the Australian Muslim population2
      • Require a Halal slaughter2
  • October. Federal Government is conducting a camel cull $19M to remove 25,000 animals3
  • Federal Minister for Agriculture – Joe Ludwig is considering all options for camels including live export and export of processed meat.3
  • NT Government say camel trade is not viable and cull must continue to protect the environment.3

2013

  • AFCMP project to June 2013 – culled 52,000 camels in the NT by aerial shooting
    • another 12,000 taken on the ground
    • Estimated to be a 60% reduction of animals in Western desert and 20% in Simpson desert.
    • Estimate a further 25-30,000 animals to be removed in 2013
  • Peterborough abattoir (SA) and Caboolture (QLD) are currently processing 10,000 -15,000 camels per year.
    • have the capacity to process many more
    • significant challenges in the supply chain and high transport costs.
  • Wambonden is processing up to 20 camels a week.
  • Portable abattoirs considered – difficulty to obtain the meat hygiene standards for human consumption
    • Pet meat application for camels is a possibility however risks are assoicated with Indospicine contamination.
      • Toxin found in plants of genus Indigofera. Toxin accumulates in tissue of horses and camels and cause death of dogs if they eat the meat.

Sources

  1. Personal communication.
  2. ‘Alice springs abattoir to produce halal camel meat’ Daily Telegraph 22.02.2010
  3. ‘Ludwig not ruling out central Australian camel industry’ ABC rural. 21.10.2010
  4. www.camelsaust.com.au
  5. Alice Springs Rural Review December 2012.

Curtin Springs (NT)

A small closed abattoir located South west of Alice Springs that used to cater to local aboriginal communities and Ayers rock regions. The facility has now been converted to a tourism, paper making workshop.

Other Names

Current Operation

  • Closed

Location

  • 85km east of the entrance to the Uluru national Park (Ayers Rock) and 360 km South west of Alice Springs.

Australia. Curtin

Pic. Curtin Springs abattoir located South West of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory

Other Australian Abattoir locations

Owner

  • Peter and Ashley Severin5

Operation

  • Supplied to Aboriginal communities in the area beef that was cheaper than Alice Springs.1

History

1956

  • Severins began operation of the property – working cattle station2
    • helped to develepe tourism to Uluru (100km away)2
    • Curtin Springs was the first wayside Inn in the region. With a store, licensed pub, accommodation and camp sites.2
    • Drive market caters to 300,000 people annually.2
  • 1956 to current period (2014) – Severins’ developed a substantial tourist business along with managing their cattle station of the same name.5
    • Curtin Springs Wayside Inn has a store, licensed pug, fuel, 27 accomodation rooms and camping grounds.5
    • Now caters to the drive market of approximately 300,000 people.5

1970’s

  • Cattle prices were extremely low. Low communities  (including Ayers Rock) did not believe they were receiving good quality meat from their usual suppliers.5
  • Severin’s built the fully licensed commercial abattoir5
    • Considered state of the art at the time and well above industry standards5
      • Facility was later used as a basis for other people who set up abattoirs on their properties.6
      • Urapunga abattoir (NT)
    • Operated with a commercial butchers shop5
    • Employed 3 full time butchers, 1 apprentice, 1 labourer and both Peter and Ashley Severin5
  • Processed 30 head per week, on a single kill day.5
    • Rest of week was used to break up the carcases, pack, freeze and present for retail.5
    • Sourced cattle from local cattle stations – The Gardens, Mulga Park, Tempe Downs, Orange Creek and Haasts Bluff.5
  • Delivery was by aircraft, up to 4 hours by air (one way)5
  • At one stage operating 2 planes, with a full time pilot.5
  • Regular customers – Italian and Greek Immigrants in Alice Springs, for slink meat (Unborn calf meat)5
  • Bull meat was sent to Adelaide as slash and pack5

Curtain Springs._edited-1Pic. Source Lyndee Severin. Interpretive Information page.
Curtin Spring abattoir in operation

Curtin Springs Paper - Old Abattoir  (1)Pic. Source L. Severin. Yards and ramp leading to abattoir

Curtin Springs - Abattoir pictures (3)Pic. L. Severin. Gutting the carcase

Untitled_edited-1Pic. Source Lyndee Severin. Interpretive Information page.
Initial skining and carcase treatment after slaughter.

Curtin Springs - Abattoir pictures (6)Pic. Source L. Severin. Cutting the carcase down the back bone to create 2 sides.

1980’s

  • Facility closed.4
  • Closed due to local politics.5
  • Various attempts to re-open the facility however constraints around staffing was always the greatest challenge.5

2011

  • Federal Government conducted a camel cull in the area that was allocated $19M5
    • Feral Camel situation is complex and layered. No simple answer to the control of the feral camel population.5
    • Large proportion of the funding went to the development of infrastructure and skills on aboriginal managed land for increased commercial removal of camels.5
  • Suggestion was put to government that funding could be supplied to pay for abattoirs, fixed or mobile.1
    • Produce dried meat that could be sent as emergency food supplies in famine affected areas.1
    • Growing demand for camel meat, hide, teeth, fat, milk, toenails and blood products.5
    • Security of the camel processing industry must be supported by domesticated herds. Opportunistic removal are not consistent or reliable.5
    • Bulk of feral camel populations are on aboriginal owned land which have challenges regarding dedicated commercial activities.5

2014

  • July. Application is made to NT Pastoral land board under new arrangement to allow diversification of pastoral properties to develope other businesses beside cattle production.
    • Abattoir to be refitted to make paper. Estimated Cost. $51,0803

Aerial Photo_edited-1Source NT Planning Application – Curtain Springs July 2014
Curtain Springs roadhouse located south (top of picture) of the Lasseters Highway, the abattoir located north (bottom of picture)

  • Sept. NT Government provide grant $45,680, from funding that for tourism development and infrastructure.2
    • Funding is to develop tourism walks along salt lakes and paper making workshop within the abattoir building.2
  • Old Abattoir building now houses the production area and a retail area.5
  • Many of the original features of the working abattoir have been retained and highlighted.5
  • Tours of the papermaking process are available as well as extended stay workshops.5

Curtin Spring papermaking and stay workshops

Curtin Springs facebook

 Curtin Springs Paper - Ashley and Lyndee Severin (2) (3)_edited-1Pic Lyndee Severin.
Ashley and Lyndee Severin – papermaking.

Curtin Springs Paper - Old Abattoir  (2) (2)Pic Lyndee Severin.
The Curtin Springs abattoir.

 Curtin Springs PaperSource L. Severin. Paper products available for sale at the Curtin Springs papermaking facility.

Sources

  1. ‘A rotton waste’ Alice On line. 09.11.2011
  2. ‘Curtain Springs nets Tourism grant’ Nth QLD register. 17.09.2014
  3. Pastoral land board application. July 2014
  4. ‘An old abattoir to be used for making Spinifx paper’ ABC Rural. 30.04.14
  5. Personal Communication. Lyndee Severin 12/14/2014
  6. ‘Red dust rising – The Story of Ray Fryer of Urapunga’ Marion Houldsworth

Katherine #1

 

Other Names

  • Bovril meatworks

Current Operation

  • Never completed to start operations.

Location

  • 300km S of Darwin, Victoria Hwy Katherine 3km

Australia. Katherine

Map. Katherine. jpg

Owner

  • Bovril Australian Estate (English) owned VRD at the time(1947)

History

  • An abattoir was begun to be built and due to lack of government backing was stopped and demolished before even finished

Katherine. Bovril.Source – Northern Territory Library

Katherine #1 Abattoir – Bovril works, Photo dated 1951. construction was never completed

Is now the site of BOC gas, Bovril Street. Cement posts are still evident but roof is now a flat roof.

1947

  • Bovril moved equipment and some infrastructure from Manbulloo site1
  • Bovril leased 2,260 acres, land close to racecourse area and began erecting ‘Bovril meat extraction plant’2
  • Meatworks never used. Rumour was Vestey’s were going to take over or Bovril Estates3

1949  

  • Project abandoned – Cost £300,0004

1951     

  • Extraction plant construction stopped and started several times finally abandoned 3rd January 19512
  • “To this day, the enormous concrete shell still stands, only now it houses a multitude of trades, including a panel beating shop, a mechanic and a furniture factory. Also standing a short distance up the road, are the staff quarters and engineer’s house which were erected by Bovril and which are now part of a caravan park”2

1952            

  • Victorian company Preston Meatworks & William Say & co. Considered purchase of Bovril equipment to build a plant between Elliott & Darwin, small scale to start them to eventually process 30,000 hd a year4. This never happened!

Source

  1. ‘Pastoral Australia: Fortunes, Failures & Hard Yakka: A historical view.” M. Pearson, J Lennon. 2010
  2. ‘Katherine abattoir finally put down’ ABC rural 15.09.11
  3. ‘Meat Monopolies’ Northern Standard 07.03.47
  4. ‘Meatworks project for N. Territory’ The Canberra times. 21.11.52

Oenpelli. NT

Aboriginal owned  and operated abattoir through ILC. Domestic abattoir that processes cattle from Indigenous land corporation properties with sale of product into local aboriginal communities. Employs 13 people directly and another 12 on properties, provides training and important income for members of the indigenous communities.

Other names

  • Oenpelli abattoir is also known as Gunbalanya abattoir as it is located on Gunbalanya station

Current Operation

  • Closed December 2017.

Location             

  • East Arnham Land, 320km east of Darwin,  Gunbalanya station

Aust. OenpelliPic. Location of Oenpelli (Gunbalanya) abattoir east of Darwin.

Other Australian abattoir locations

Owner/s                 

  • Indigenous Land Corporation2
  • Manager – Dion Henderson2
  • Gunbalanya Meat supply Pty Ltd1.
  • Gunbalanya community is owned by the Kunwinjku people20

Operation          

  • Small plant. Capacity to kill 50 head per week1.
  • Cattle and Buffalo – kills 50:501
  • Supplies local indigenous communities1
    • Supplies meat to six grocery stores4
  • Gunbalanya station receives other cattle from ILC properties and finishes also for LE1
  • Employs 25 at the meatworks and Gunbalanya station2
  • PIC TEDG06923

History                

1960’s

  • established by community to service local demand4
    • had limited financial success4

1974

  • Oenpelli abattoir was first registered20

2008

  • July. At this time there are 2 other Aboriginal abattoirs operating in communities of the NT13.
  • Oenpelli Manager at this time – Jim Allison13
  • Operation process of the facility13
    • Cattle are shot outside in a stockyard and bled13
    • Carcase is lifted with a chain hoist to the bleed-out over a second drain13
    • Whole carcase is laid on a bed (frame) and skinned there13
    • Carcase is re-lifted to allow hide removal completely13
    • Carcase is processed further in boning room after gutting13.
    • Meat is packed into bags13
  • Local aboriginal men are employed under ‘Work for the dole’ program13
  • 3-4 bodies are processed a week13
    • 3 bodies can be processed in one morning13
  • Abattoir supplies local store, service station, women’s resource centre and nearby stores and bakeries13.
    • Meat is sold for $8/kg13
      • Retailed at $13/kg13
  • September. Since 1995 the Indigenous Land corporation (ILC) have acquired 221 properties across Australia14
    • ILC now manage 70,000 cattle on various Aboriginal-held properties14
  • ILC have leased one property – Wliburru, formerly known as Hodgson Downs Station in the Roper gulf for 11 and a half years14.
    • ILC will invest heavily to improve the property14
    • ILC will turnoff cattle from Waliburru to have cattle fed on grassplains at Oenpelle to supply the abattoir and live export trade14

2009

  • ILC are in the process of acquiring the abattoir to cater to both local and interstate markets15
  • Expansion of Oenpelli abattoir facility is planned15
  • Meatworks’ aim is to supply inexpensive, quality beef and buffalo meat to community stores servicing 1,100 indigenous people in Arnham land and the island communities of Darwin20
  • Presently only 3,000 head are run on the floodplain14
    • With only a few head a week killed at the abattoir15
  • Plans to process minimum of 20 head per week15
    • Run up to 8,000 on the floodplain15
    • Stock will be sourced from Hodgson Downs and Elsey15
    • Intention that what stock isn’t suitable to live export will be slaughtered at the works15
  • Manager of the ILC Pastoral Development program at this time – Paul Blore15
  • Indigenous Land council facilitator – Dave Armstrong15

2010

  • Re-opened – $3.1M provided by ILC for upgrades2
    • Properties supply live export and supply animals for processing at works4

2011        

  • New retail outlet added2

2012

  • ILC sign an agreement with traditional owners and Northern Land council to take a 15 year lease over the land.5
  • At this time employed 10 workers that were funded under the Federal Governments Community development Employment project5
  • Property had room for 1,000 head due to lack of infrastructure5
  • Meatworks slaughtering 5 head a week5
  • Revamp of property $3.1M allowed 300km station fencing, solid yards and watering points5
    • Now property can carry 8,500 head in the dry and 2,500 in the wet.5
    • Property production is to target live cattle export turnoff5
  • Meatworks received upgrades of $1.5M, new coolrooms and modern infrastructure5
  • 31 new trainess start in 2012 /2013 with 22 continued on from 2011 /20125

2013

  • Single largest employer of Indigenous people in the community and is now selling meat prodcuts on a commercial scale for the first time in 37 years.4
    • Processing approximately 426 head from own properties.4
  • Meatworks now processing 35 head a week5
    • increase to 45 head as markets expand5
  • Cattle for slaughter are mustered every Tuesday5
    • Slaughtering on Wednesdays5
    • Everyone except newest trainees skin, bone and gut the carcase.5
  • Meatworks produces 2-3 t fresh meat per week5
    • Shane Townsend – Retail butcher recently took over as manager.5
  • Supplies 8 community stores, city and regional wholesale and retail outlets.5
  • Supplies prime- beef cut orders for Ayers Rock Resort and Kimberley’s Home valley station tourism business.5
  • Processes 15-20 buffalo a month5
    • supplies restaurants Kakadu & Sydney5
  • June. Advert is placed in NT News for Meatworks Manager17
    • 3 year fixed employment17
    • Must be Australian resident17
    • Run all activities of the meatworks including the butcher shop17
    • Manage livestock within the meatworks17
    • market beef and buffalo products17
    • oversee management and training of indigenous people in the meatworks17
    • Applications close 05/07/201317

2014

  • February. Meat of buffalo and beef is being flown out to Jabiru each week to be transported to Darwin9
  • Manager at this time – Shane Townsend9
  • Is unsatisfied demand for local beef in northern Australia local communities, mining and tourism.6
  • Involvement in meat processing by Indignous communties could develope local beef processing facilities.6
    • Kalkarindji abattoir (NT). Kills 5 head a week, currently operating.6
    • Palumpa (NT), kills 20 head a week is currently operating2
    • Mataranka (NT) – partially built but has been abandoned.
    • Peppimenarti (NT) proposed.6

photo building_edited-1Source – Managing Indigenous Pastoral Land. Module 9. 14/025

Gunbalanya Abattoir.

2015

  • January. Flooded rivers and road closures have forced the meatworks to fly it meat to NT markets.7
  • Currently processing buffalo and beef.7
  • Loads a plane each Wednesday to unload the meat at Jabiru.7
    • From Jabiru the meat is trucked to Darwin or other top end customers7
    • 3 tonnes is flown out each week.7
    • Abattoir needs to keep supply up through the wet so as to keep customers.7
    • Costs facility 50c / kg more to fly out the product.7

meat flying out_edited-1Source ‘The steaks are high as floods force Indigenous abattoir to fly meat to markets’ ABC rural 19.01.2015
Gunbalanya boxed meat ready to be air freighted.

  • March. Tropical cyclone Nathan causes the delay of orders due to planes being grounded.8
  • July. Processing first buffalo of the year10
    • have some on buffalo on the station but they are difficult to capture during the wet season as they can swim across the floodplains10
    • First load of buffalo had come from Beatrice Hill10
  • Transport of meat is reduced as roads have weight limits until they are opened properly10
  • Want to promote buffalo meat more widely as it is in high demand10
    • Want to move beyond supplying buffalo as a niche market to more of a mainstream market11
  • August. Oenpelli abattoir donates 50kg of scotch fillet buffalo to the Darwin Pitchfork festival11

Source

2016

  • Administrative officer position is advertised.18
    • Casual employment18
    • Report to ILC’s finance officer located in Adelaide18
    • Supervise and provide training to indigenous trainees

2017

  • December. Oenpelli abattoir is shut down12.
    • Indigenous Land council (ILC) sub-lease the Gunbalanya meatworks and station12
      • Federally funded newly formed subsidiary12
        • Australian Indigenous Agribusiness Company12
      • Chief executive of ILC – John Maher12
        • Had acknowledged there were issues with employees12
    • Local Aboriginal people say they were not informed of the closure or reasons for it12
    • 10-person board of Gunbalanya Meat Supply have written to the ILC lamenting they have lost trust and respect in regards to the ILC12
      • Board Chairman – Henry Yates12
  • Long term manager. Shane Townsend had lost his job earlier in the month12
  • Closure of the abattoir had affected the local community with no meat for Christmas and no income12
    • Workers had been employed from other communities in recent weeks12
      • Workers from Wave Hill and Elsey12
    • Meat for the community was being purchased from Darwin12
      • Approximately 1,100 people at Gunbalanya12

 Sources

  1. ‘Northern Australian Beef Industry – Assessment of risks and opportunities’. ABARE 2012
  2. ‘Gunbalanya meatworks expands again’ ABC rural 02.11.11
  3. NT PICS www.nt.gov.au
  4. www.ilc.gov.au – Gunbalanya Station and Meats
  5. ‘Back on Station’ RM Williams Magazine. Issue 95 Jun/Jul 2014
  6. Managing Indigenous Pastoral Land, Module 9 Small scale abattoirs. 14/025
  7. ‘The steaks are high as floods force Indigenous abattoir to fly meat to markets’ ABC Rural. 19.01.2015
  8. ‘Cyclone Nathan stops Top End Indigenous abattoir meat delivery’ ABC Rural 24.03.2015
  9. ‘Flood forces NT abattoir to transport meat by air’ ABC rural 05.02.2014
  10. ‘Buffalo meat back on the menu as Indigenous abattoir…..’ ABC Rural 03.07.2015
  11. ‘Top End buffalo stars at the Darwin Festival’ ABC Rural 14.08.2015
  12. ‘Local meat shortage, families without income ahead of Christmas…..’ ABC Rural 22.12.2017
  13. ‘Rare bush abattoir’ ABC Rural 07.07.2008
  14. ‘Cattlemen muster pride’ The Australian 22.09.2008
  15. ‘Gumbalunya abattoir set to expand’ ABC Rural 06.04.2009
  16. http://www.territorystories.nt.gov.au/bitstream/10070/246081/142/ntn22jun13410x.pdf
  17. Gunbalanya Administrative officer advert. 25.05.2016
  18. https://www.ilc.gov.au/Home/What-We-Do/Project-Profiles/Gunbalanya-Station-and-Meats. Accessed 22.12.2017
  19. http://www.ilc.gov.au/Home/News/Marrying-Indigenous-Land-Management-and-Economic-D. Accessed 22.12.2017

Canon Hill (NT)

Authors Note – it is possible this is the same abattoir also called Oenpelli / Gunbalanya(10 west of Canon Hill)

Current Operation

  • Closed

 Location

  •  East Alligator River. 250km E Darwin. 100km N of Mudginberry

Australia. Canon Hill

Map - Canon Hill

Owner

 Operation

  •  Capacity/species – Buffalo

History

  • Predominately relied on local supply buffalo and wild cattle during the BTEC periods

1987  

  • closed prior to 87, before Mudginberri closure1

Sources

  1. Savanna Responses to feral Buffalo in Kakadu National park (2007)

Batchelor

Batchalor is a multi species abattoir located south of Darwin. It is currently mothballed due to problems with ownership of title deeds. Hasn’t operated since 2003. Has undergone upgrades and maintenance since then.

Other names

  • Tenarra4
  • Meneling abattoir (Pg 202)7
  • Rum Jungle meat exports8

Current Operation

  • Being upgraded, open or very close to being opened.

Location

  • 100km S of Darwin

Map. Batchelor

Owner

  • Windy Hills Australian Game meat. 5 year lease.
  • Ivan Coulter (Operator)1
  • A. Phillips 5

Operation

  • Domestic and Export3
  • 350 hd day (could be limited by wet season)2
  • Halal approved, was originally designed for onshore processing of halal meat products3.
  • It used to be the largest abattoir in the NT3.
  • Process other free range animals, goats, water buffalo1
  • Stockyards, races and interior have changed to suit dimensions and animal welfare requirements of camels1

History

1960’s

  • Sid Parker involved with abattoir (Pg 202)7

1968

  • Sid Parker principal of Meneling meatworks, approached producers about supply of Brahman cross animals for local trade (Pg 205)7
    • Product was sent to Woolworths Darwin store who offered a premium price (Pg 205)7

1974

  • Beef Crash, came unexpectedly and hit hard.(Pg 205)7
  • Properties supplemented income by slaughtering brumbies and buffalo for pet meat (Pg 205)7

1980’s

  • Robert Bright mustering Finniss River Station, sending cattle and buffalo mainly into Batchalor (then called Meneling abattoir)(Pg 244)7
    • Money from sale of cattle was paid to store to cover wages and goods – cheques were bouncing.(Pg 244)7
  • Batchalor – manager Bill Coleman didn’t realise no-one was getting paid – owed $80,000 to Robert Bright abattoir in no position to pay. (Pg 244)7
    • Another creditor lodged summons to wind Batchalor up.(Pg 244)7
  • Creditors meeting – abattoir didn’t have any money to pay anyone and was going to appoint administrators to take over the abattoir. (Pg 244)7
  • Creditors asked Judge if they could take over running of the abattoir instead of installing an administrator- was granted (pg 245)7
  • Robert Bright appointed solely to take control, Merl Sharples set up bookwork (Pg 245)7
    • Asked creditors to supply animals to kick start abattoir.7
      • Townsend family from Stapleton agreed to supply animals as they were 2nd largest creditor.(Pg 245)7
    • Abattoir at the time was supplying 60 bodies a week to Woolworths (Pg 245)7
    • Started to contract kill pigs for Angliss meat works as Berrimah abattoir (NT) had closed7
      • Pigs gave a 2 day a week kill.(Pg 245)7
      • Litchfield abattoir (NT) wasn’t built until 1993 to process pigs that was closer to Darwin when Berrimah officially closed in 1991.
    • Meneling only had local licence meaning they could only supply Australian market7
  • Established contacts with Steiger’s – Waxy Pearce (Pg 245), who had previously been involved with Katherine abattoir (NT) 7
    • Contract was paid upon loading of the freezer trucks at the abattoir (Pg 245)7
  • Wally Wegscheider – used to work at Meneling, ran the slaughter floor (Pg 246)7
  • Freddy Robinson – ran the boning room7
    • Both Wally and Freddy agreed on a per head price and they would supply their own labourers7
  • Bill Coleman stayed on for period when Robert Bright took over. (Pg 246)7
  • Creditors eventually paid 70c in the dollar(Pg 245)7

abattoir books 012Source – ‘A privileged few’ Jeff Hill. Pg 244
Old Meneling abattoir

abattoir books 013Source ‘A privileged few’ Jeff Hill. Pg 246.
Meneling abattoir yards in 1980

1985

  • Robert Bright bought out major shareholders and debt of creditors to be sole owner (pg 247)7
  • Meneling was upgraded to an export abattoir – allow to sell anywhere in the world (Pg 247)7
  • Contracted Herman Lind – German contractor who built export abattoirs for the Tatiara Group7
    • Lind was engaged to design new abattoir (Pg 247)7
  • Incorporated part of the old abattoir into the new (Pg 247)7
    • slaughter 10 – 300 animals a day with minimum labour (Pg 247)7
  • Bright needed a loan of $1M, found a bank to lend $650,000 (pg 247)7
    • Used and located second hand abattoir equipment7
    • did a lot of the work themselves7
    • built abattoir for $800,000 (Pg 247)7
    • Bank supplied rest of money needed. (Pg 247)7
  • Export abattoir required specialised labour, previously as domestic abattoir all workers had been locals, tried to employ non-union with export set up but ended up with some staff that were union (pg 247)7
  • Only killing for one week before labour problems started.(Pg 248)7
    • Union rep at the time – Trevor Surplice (Pg 248)7
  • All boners had walked off job – had called a stop work (Pg 248)7
  • Boners saying they didn’t like the conditions they worked under (Pg 248)7
  • Workers were given choice to stay or leave under the conditions they had originally agreed before strike, a few left.(Pg 248)7
  • Meneling didn’t lose days to strikes even though it had a picket line (Pg 248)7
  • Robert Bright bought Mudginberri abattoir (NT).7

abattoir books 014Source ‘A privileged few’ Jeff Hill. 2008. Pg 247.
New abattoir at Meneling

Unknown dates

  • Went into partnership with a Germon company that the abattoir supplied buffalo meat7
    • Terms were that Bright had to stay and operate abattoir.(Pg 249)7
    • after couple of years was sold.(Pg 249)7
  • For a long period Meneling was the major employer in Batchalor and killed close to 40,000 head (Pg 249)7

2003

  • Malaysian company ,kept it closed in exchange for LE to Malaysia3.

2007

  • Currently closed but would be capable of still operating – 250 head a day capacity8

2010

  • Camel culls in North of south Australia instead of shoot to waste could have been processed at Batchalor, Company could have increased production from 250 to 500 animals per week6

2011  

  • Upgraded cost $5M, process cattle, camel, buffalo
  • Owners stated ABC 06.06.11. Plant isn’t alternative to LE
  • Indonesia possible to sell small amount boxed beef
  • Main intention to process wild cattle.

Note – Some countries prefer wild run cattle they see them as healthier. Markets have been lost once these wild herds tamed, ie Buffalo Katherine meatworks contracts with Germany.

                  

2012      

  • July. Recomissioning former plant to process 250 camels a day1
  • $2M already spent with further $6M earmarked to do further work1.
  • Problems with Malaysian owners not being able to sell as they owe debts and title won’t be released on land5

Source

  1. ‘NT Camel abattoir set to boost processing’ Stock Journal 19.07.12
  2. ‘Batchalor abattoir two months from opening’ ABC rural 06.06.11
  3. ‘Answer to the live exports stand-off’ www.crikey.com.au
  4. Removed.
  5. Personal Communication – #1. 23.03.13
  6. ‘APY Lands responds to camel cull with food processing plant’ Adelaide Now 20.02.2010
  7. ‘The Privileged Few’ Jeff Hill, 2008
  8. ‘A pre-feasibility study of supply and demand issues for a multi-species abattoir in Northern Australia’ G.Niethe. 2009
    • Extracts from ‘The Meat industry of the Northern Territory’ Lorraine Corowa 2007
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