- Teys Bros
- 300km S of Darwin, Victoria Hwy Katherine 3km.
Source – Steers Sale Catalogue September 2012
This was the slaughter floor prior to the auction sale in 2012. Much of the equipment is now removed.
Source – Cattleproducer. Taken February 2013.
Inside the Katherine #2 abattoir boning room.
Source – Steers Sales Catalogue. September 2012
Each of these plate freezer rooms could hold one tonne of boxed meat. All these are removed now.
Source – Cattleproducer. February 2013.
Inside one of the many coolrooms
- Hookers – Traded as Northmeat (1963)
- Manager 1974 – Dick Condon60
- Norwest – 1976 to atleast 1984. Oprational Manager Ron Goldspring38
- General Manager Peter Taylor43
- Managing Director of Norwest Beef Industries (1985) Ron Ibbotson45
- Northern Meat Exporters12
- Tancards – Manager Paul Herrod
- Teys Bros2
- Teys merged –
- Workers mainly permanent residents
- Royal commission into the Northern Pastoral Industry recommends the eestablishment of a freezing works for the area45
- Abattoirs in the north were still operated ‘frontier mentality’
- short processing seasons of 20-25 weeks
- largley itinerant labour
- Living and working conditions were dangerous
- Animal welfare standards were low
- Sanitation compiled to UK market standardsfor quarter beef, were well below standards for emerging US markets of boxed beef (Pg 64)
- US grinding beef market of the late 1950’s suited the cattle that were present in the north (Pg 64)
- Plants were encouraged to upgrade to meet USDA standards (Pg 64)
Prior to 1960
- Prior to abattoirs being built in Darwin and Katherine cattle had been been previously walked along the Murranji stockroute and others to be processed in facilities in QLD, or to the railhead at Alice Springs. Stock walked North would be sent to abattoirs at Wyndham or prior to that put on barges there and sent to Robbs Jetty, Perth to be processed there33
- Hookers took over VRD26 including holdings owned Katherine abattoir & Wyndham30.
- July. Colonel Rose, former director of the Animal Industry and now in private practice as a consultant urges government to back the proposed Katherine abattoir meatworks63
- Meatworks is the only chance for a prosperous future in the area63
- Reports of insufficient cattle to keep the works in operation is not true63
- Annual surplus of 20,000 head over local requirements with cattle being walked to QLD63.
- Peter Playfair of the Australian meat packing family is raising finance63
- reported to already have £200,00063
- Have applied for aid from the Development bank63
- Peter Playfair is a senior member of Playfair meat company64.
- Peter Playfair (DOB 03/04/1920) is a 5th generation of Playfair family65
- Great Grandfather – John Thomas Playfair (04/03/1833 – 15/11/1893) served as Alderman and Mayor of Sydney for 18 years65
- Established Homebush saleyards 1882 for £60,00065
- Homebush became 2000 Olympic venue site
- Laid foundation stone of Sydney Opera house65
- Peter Playfair is involved in a serious car accident in Sydney suffering severe injuries requiring brain operation64
- Hookers Pastoral company begun preparations to build an export abattoir. Peter Fairplay – Meat processor from Eastern states and a backer of scheme. – formed the Northern Meat exporters Association23
- Northern Meat Exporters Pty Ltd consisted of
- support of station owners within 500km of Katherine(Pg 64)61
40% – Hookers – who also lent money for operating expenses which was repaid in one year.
John Swire & Sons Pty Ltd
Australian Agricultural Company
Craig Mostyn & Co Pty Ltd
WD & HO Wills (Aust) Ltd
Retreat Holdings Ltd
33,000 shares also offered to Katherine pastoralists(Pg 145)25
- Another investor was China Navigation Company, subsidiary of Swire group.(Pg 64)61
- Held a strategic investment in the abattoir in the 1960’s and early 1970’s.61
- stimulated export of beef on its vessels from the north.61
- Built to specifications of US department of Ag – US lean boned out MX markets25
- Met stringent USDA (USA Dept of agriculture) hygiene regulations4
- Combined with Darwin – capacity of 60,000hd per year, first time NT had export killing capacity4
- Built to kill 600 cattle per six day week(Pg 64)61
- Slaughtering on the first floor, hides and offal treatment below.61
- Sides of beef went by ‘lowerator’ to 2 ground floor chillers61
- Each chiller could hold a days kill61
- Further cold store could hold 2 days production61
- After freezing product was trucked to cold stores provided by the commonwealth government in Darwin 300km away.61
- Opened Owned by –Operated as Northmeat8
- Opened mid season 1963, took 6 months to erect, initial capacity 125 hd a day. Supervisor Richard (Dick) Condon23.
- R Condon had previously managed Anderson’s works at Roma (Pg 64)61
- Coincided with opening of the US hamburger trade – ‘Class 3’ or ‘grinding beef’23
“The situation was more amazing in that the export trade was not to consist of Australia’s finest meat from premier producers but, miracle of miracles, bull meat and as much as could be procured!” – Bull meat can absorb at least 20% its own weight of water, therefore could yield 120% when processed23
- Syndicate of owners formed and export meatworks, Northmeat was built. “This revolutionised the disposal of our cattle. The meat was mostly exported to the USA as hamburger meat!”16
- Exports to USA from Katherine meatworks– US lean boned out meat worth £7,000
- Road transport of animals was replacing droving on stockroutes. Murranji stockroute, where cattle normally walked to Wyndham or south, to eventual QLD or Alice Springs declinded to finally stopped being used 1967.33
- Beef roads project to improve roads in the NT was instrumental in assisting with access and transport of livestock45
Northern Meat Exporters licence.
Wording – Meat in cartons or carcass form for export or local consumption from Katherine, Australia. Reg renewed 09/02/1984, Accepted 03/12/1964, Reg renewed 27/05/1965, Reg 18/12/1969
- Mr Bryce Killen. Managing director of Northern Meat Exporters66
- Elected as president of the Federal Inland Development Organisation (FIDO)66
- Vice president of NSW Graziers Association66
- Mr Killen owns property at Nyngan (NSW)66
- FIDO have been pressing federal government to build the Pioneer Highway66
- Link Bourke with the Barkely Highway with a fully bitumised road66
- Would link Darwin and the south and open up huge areas of QLD channel country66 .
- Contractors caught bulls on cents per pound meatworks rates – was a better result as the station got less bruising and contractor was paid to look after the animals(Pg 174)60
- “Katherine meatworks made a big difference to all Territory graziers. It gave them a market for the thousands of bulls being shot because no one wanted to buy them – thank goodness for the Yanks wanting hamburger beef. Up until then the Darwin butchers and the live export trade to the Philippines were the main outlets” Neville Hood. (pg 234)60
- Exports to USA from Katherine meatworks – US lean boned out meat worth $4M
Source Australian News and Info Bureau 1967. A1200 L64219
Cattle at Katherine abattoir waiting for slaughter
Source Australian News and Info Bureau 1967. A1200 L64304
Carcases moving from top processing/slaughter floor to down levels to chillers and boning.
Source Australian News and Info Bureau 1967. A1200 L64306
Source Australian News and Info Bureau 1967. A1200 L64300
- Laurie Howard – contract Buffalo catcher supplied buffalo to abattoir from Dorisvale (then manager at Dorisvale – Leo Whitely) (Pg 189)60
- US quota diversification scheme took effect (pg 64)61
- disadvanteagd northern works who were most suited to grinding markets.61
- R Condon was chief spokesperson that argued for special consideration of northern works under the US beef quota system61
- Number of Northern plants received special allocations for US beef quota.61
- Alice Springs abattoir was given 2,000t quota.61
- US quota was worth $1B at the time61
- Northmeat Meatworks destroyed by fire, rebuilt in 4 months17
- Significant industrial unrest at the time (Pg 64)61
- Claims the arson was intentional.62
- Royal Australian airbase at Tindal was used to fly in parts for the rebuild (Pg 64)
- Rebuild cost $650,000, capacity 2,000 head a week, a considerable increase on previous operation25
- Properties were opportunistically harvesting bulls and taking them as they caught them to meatworks – sometimes 20 head a day during the dry season (Pg 122)60
- Beef Crisis 1974-7725
- Opened Easter, killed mainly bullocks and cows prior to July, then culls and bulls after July, closing late dry season3
- Heavier steers went to SA abs as they paid better than Katherine who did mainly hamburger trade.
- Lost USDA listing – No clean up had occurred of prior days kill floor and inspector from America seen. Industrial problems and workers were on strike day and a half12
- Couldn’t meet USDA standards – lost export licence, so did Derby, Wyndham, Darwin and Katherine4
- Average price paid, dressed 37.5c/kg28
- Animal health position taken up by Terry Crowson. palpating lungs for pleuro lesions – pleuro eradication program was drawing to a close60
- Average price paid, dressed 48.5c/kg28
- Northmeat built a butcher shop in Main street17
- Katherine meatworks was operational taking bulls and bullocks from Montejinni station (Pg 27)60
- Average price paid, dressed 57.3c/kg
- Manager at site – Dick Condon looked after producers, paying immediately animals were killed.(Pg 121)60
- Abattoir closed for a period (Pg 122)60
Source NT Library. hdl 100709545
The Katherine abattoir 1974
Camera shot is looking north. Stockyards that are partially covered in the forground, ramp to the slaughter and processing centre. Main engines and boilers to right, Administration top right, ammenities and canteen to the far left.
Source NT Library. hdl 100705008
The Katherine abattoir 1974
Camera shot is looking south. Workers accomodation in centre, main processing top, administration to the right, hide processing shed to the left.
- DPI Bribery – $17-20 weekly cash to inspectors – meant to be in lieu of living conditions, payments made 1963 – 197512
- Most workers living rent free, free electricity in reasonable accommodation1
- False labelling 1974-1977 – Cow Meat ‘C’ labelled as Steer meat ‘S’, continued even after management confronted about it12
- Management bulldozed caravans of workers to fragment
- Norwest Beef Industries take over operations.38
- New management didn’t pay DPI bribes or mis-label meat packaging12
- Royal commission notes – Abattoir was experiencing problems in other directions12.
- Employer tried to induce non union contracts – workers revolted bound by industrial award
- Old system – Tally – workers slaughtered a set number of beasts a day50
- New system – court ratified contact – workers paid on productivity50
- Brucellosis and Tuberculosis eradication program (BTEC) testing beginning57.
- Aim is to eradicate TB by 199257
- All properties must reach TB incidence of lower than 0.1% by January 1989 or property will be compolsory destocked57
- In 1982 – 17 of the 38 properties in Gulf District – (latitude 14’S – 18’S) had a testing programme57
- Gulf District turnoff – 20,215 cattle – from 33 stations, 72% went to meatworks – Katherine or Tennent Creek – 14,601 going to meatworks – 51% were females57.
- Turnoff from properties was governed by wet season, road condition and opening of meatworks57
- Katherine meatworks paying $105 (160kg dressed ox at 65.75c/kg)57
- Of 18 stations 55.5% had operating costs per beast turn off of $30 to $150 per head sold.57
- Of 38 stations 13 had herd of 2000 to 4000 head.57
- Of 38 stations 47.3% had herd with Bos Indicus breeding 60% or greater57
- Of 38 stations 86.8% had branding rate of 50% or less57
- Of 18 stations 55.5% had Operating costs of property below $100,000pa57
- AMIEU applied to have all abs in NT under wage conditions not contracts. Employers at Katherine opposed
- Oct. NT Minister for Primary Production seeked certification of NT meatworks to be certified as Halal suitable, Estimated to be worth $200M a year in markets to NT35
- Nov. Noel Buntine takes over from failed business Buntines Transport to establish – Roadtrains Australia (RTA), orders 14 new prime movers. Will be ready for 1984 season with 17 trucks and fully reconditioned trailers.36
- Trucks 440hp, total legal length was 17m, this is prime mover and one 40′ trailer40
- Dec. BTEC campaign, Federal ALP offer $2.4M to accelerate program in NT, is 60% of what was offered Australia wide37
- Some reports say total $6M for BTEC allocated with $4.4 released immediately, scheme started in 1970, more funding allocated $73.2M by mid 1987.42
- Funding had been witheld due to an investigation into the program by Federal government41
- Mar. Loss of Beef export markets from Malaysia, Singapore, Middle East and some EEC markets cost $100M in 1983/1984. Markets lost to competition of South America, 36 of 44 export markets taking less Australian beef. Japanese markets being lost to America38
- April. Katherine employs 160 people, mostly locals, seasonal operation – April to November average slaughter of 280 head daily, Most beef is sold to US some to Japan, Middle east and UK markets, Up to 1983 season 600,000 head had been slaughtered at Katherine39
- June. 24 Buffalo slaughtered to trial as a feasiblity study to process Buffalo43
- Pastoralists boycotted the abattoir due to AMIEU, Was a drought on NTCA refute vote for boycott was made.
- Abattoir closed down temporarily1
- Northwest didn’t open for full season, 140 people umemployed, could be reopened with 30-40 men but not under Union onlyunder NT meat employees Act.49
- Hookers tried to have all workers on penalty rates, meant menial jobs paid very large, tried to implement same status in Wyndham and Katherine30
- Had wet canteen on plant site (grog), major problems with reliability of workers30
- Feb. Northwest put abattoir on market to sell.49
- Mar. Katherine branch of NTCA (Northern Territory Cattlemans Association) is formed44
- May. Editorial in paper.“Every year it becomes a farce whereby the meatworks and the meatworkers have a slinging match against one another”48
- Abattoir still closed up to May from wet season normal closure.48
- Pat Roughan – National organiser AMIEU – letters to paper. Wants the contract system abolished in smaller abattoir such as Victoria river and Mudginberry. “These picket lines have been gallently manned by Katherine meant workers in protective defence of union conditions and principals”48
- 11,600 cattle, 1,200 buffalo across NT abattoirs, YTD 20,300 cattle 16,00 buffalo47
- 10,000 t worth $30M held in cold storage in Australia due to lack of shipping services. causing delays and extra costs47
- Cattle Prices dressed47 –
- Bulls >250kg 85-148c/kg,
- Steers 180-250kg 65-158 c/kg
- Cows 160-200kg 55-151c/kg
- July. Local meatworkers concerned about ‘travelling interstate knife men’ replacing their employment45
- August. Mudginberri meatworks operator offers to buy Katherine meatworks – to have operating within 4 weeks.49
- AMIEU – Jack O’Toole refuse to negotiate staff requirements49
- Katherine abattoir kill costs $158.40 / beast, other abattoirs less than $50, Katherine had highest processing works costs of any abaottoir in Australia
- Mudginberri & Victoria River used contract system – lifted productivity 4 fold, carcase cost fallen from $150 tp $4050
- Katherine stronghold of AMIEU. Abattoir management siad last season would not open unless change in award conditions.50
- AMIEU claimed closing Mudginberri & Victoria river would ensure Katherine remains open50
- “it is about time that the public realized this is not jsut a dispute over awards but the right of a democratically elected union to negotiate on behalf of its members” Les George – meatworker51
- 300,000 cattle normally slaughtered in NT, 2/3 sent interstate.50
- AMIEU disputes disrupted 4 abattoirs – Pt Stuart – bankrupted, Tennent ck – opening halted, Mudginberri & Victoria River.50
- 70% of cattle from Katherine area, poor quality, feral shorthorns whos meat is used for manufacturing purposes50
- National Farmers Federation raise $800,000 so far of target $2M for fighting fund to assist Jay Pendarvis53
- Dispute had so far caused 2 24 hour national meatworkers strikes and a national waterfront strike52
- Nov. Workers indicate they are willing to work under NT meatworkers award54
- Katherine meatworks now been closed for 2 years, only about 60 of previous employees remained in town.54
- Overseas markets would have to improve to enable works to open54
- Wage comparison –
- Meatworker at Mudginberri 36 hour week earning $1000/week52
- NT Government postion advertised – Library traneeship – 1986 – Adult wage $16521 – $18351 pa ($317- $352 week)55
- New owners (purchased Wyndham as well) used material from Wyndham abattoir to improve and enlarge Katherine1
- Shut Wyndham down completely30
- Teys were major Australian meat processors in own right before buying the NT abattoir, purchased to use quota for USA orders30
- 1st year – processed 50,000 – over years up to 300,000 cattle, mainly bulls, 10,000 buffalo a year1
- New management reopened. Contract system no Unions. Known union activists were blacklisted,half work force of previously1
- 250 people apply at newly opened works for employment56
- Teys worked plant for a number of years – Purchased about 1985. Before closure manager sent a letter to pastoralists asking if they would supply to ab, needed minimum 20,000 hd to be profitable to process, was assured 23,000 hd. Teys still closed as they didn’t view as viable, Teys owned other plants in QLD13.
- Plant could have been scaled back to only 150/day, could have survived, idea was to set up small boning room on floor next to kill floor, hot bone meat and plate freezers30.
- At height of BTEC – had 13 boners, killed 750 head a day and worked 7 days a week1.
- Selling markets – US – 90-95CL and Korea ¼ ‘s frozen, also cattle from Alice – if 4 tooth processed to EU1.
- Cattle cheap – cows $70, foetal blood $120/lt – Cancer research, tripe /Stomach/Honeycomb to Japan selling more than fillet, killing costs about $110 hd1.
- Heavy bullocks cost $40 to process30
- Buff selling to Germany $4/kg. Only wanted feral, not domesicated1
- Buffalo – able to be processed and freighted for $2/kg
- Transport –
- Was costing 3.5-4c /kg to transport meat to Darwin –transporter changed and AQIS required meat to be exported via Brisbane, eventually had to go through Brisbane costing 40c/kg1
- Survived because hot boned– comes away from bone better, bagged then blast freezed1.
- If plant shut down cost $20,000 a day, yards could hold 5000hd1
- Made substantial saving by reprocessing of tallow to use for furnaces, Initially had to transport in Furnace oil at $300/t from Townsville, by using own tallow were able to reduce costs by over $100/t
- AUSMEAT, caused huge problems – Korea liked meat in a particular colour bag, Ausmeat dictated another colour, AQIS Rejected a whole consignment because not in right bags, Korea rejected other colour bags and lost whole market1
- 1000lt of water for every beast processed1
- Processed Camels at times, and horses but welfare for horses (pet meat)was extremely difficult due to panic in transport, only tried once30
- Normal operation was 4 month shutdown over ‘wet’, do maintenance and repairs30
- Was a Chinese buyer interested but Teys refused to sell to control market, wanted to have pastoralist pay for freight of delivery of animals to eastern abs, transport was very costly once boxed30
- Plant not active4
- Inbetween period of 1993-1997 – Historic article notes – trouble plant closes, article is unclear when or how often it closes.56
- Department of primary production aim to eradicate both tuberculosis and brucellosis from the NT57
- AMH considered making a bid for the Katherine works.(Pg 68)61
- at the time they had Mt Isa, Tennant creek (NT), Townsville and Pentland (QLD)61
- Economics of the operation of the other works and Katherine were dependent on them not being competitive against each other.61
- AMH inspected and made a bid on the plant but were out bid by Packers Consolidated Meat Group (CMG)61
- Transport efficencies made cattle more marketable from the NT by moving them to QLD processors and fattening areas. (Pg 67)61
- Teys closed – Stated couldn’t compete with LE6
- Factors affecting closure (Pg 67)61
- Lack of competitive shipping service, especially containers.61
- Lack of skilled labour61
- Industrial unrest61
- US quota arrangements61
- seasonality of operations61
- ongoing abattoir rationalisation61
- Growth of the Live export trade in to SE Asia(Pg 67)61
- Between 1990-1996 live cattle exports increased from 97,556 to 723,085 head61
- A processing plant working for 180 days, processing 500 head a day would require 90,000 head61
- Live exports represented 6-7 meatworks61
- Producers could turn off younger cattle and not hold for 4 years for local processors.61
- Last kill5
- Teys Bros and CMG Merge18
- CMG consider reopening to meet demands of US beef quotas28
- Maintenance work had been kept up to date at plant so it still retained its current export licence28
- Rockhamptons Lake Creek was having industrial problems, oversupply of cattle in QLD due to lack of rain and US market uncertainty28
- Strength of LE had kept plant in mothballs for last 2 years28
- Feasibility study conducted by Teys to determine Katherine meatworks future. Chairman – Alan Teys, said the abattoir was unable to compete with the Live export trade19.
- Feasibility study found not viable to re-open the meatworks, considered feasibility of processing 30,000hd20
- Consideration by Teys to re-open20.
- Decrease in LE has provided some opening, LE would have to continue to decline to ensure profitability in the long term22
- Free trade agreement with USA would have little benefit to the Abattoir22
- Consideration given to process camels – Ivan Coulter21
- Proposal – Multi species abattoir. Processing each year 60,000 camels, 800 buffalo, 50,000 brumbies
- Darwin Investment Group – CEO John Hughes,considered purchasing6
- John Hughes – was former general manager for Teys – when owned Katherine11
- Requires $5-6M not including Government support10
- To process 500 animals a day 5 days a week11
- Accommodation shortage was issue in Katherine, no land releases had occurred in 10 years in area11
- Plans to reopen abandoned – ferals, camel, buffalo & donkey, maybe horses and cattle outside 350kg Indo weight restrictions5
- Require $20M – power, water – Unable to source Federal or state funding5
- July – Darwin investment group withdraw – due to lack of financial support, government and others???? Water licence on the site required upgrading, aswel as power. Freight was an issue15
- “Katherine has challenges in relation to labour, We know accommodation is short in Katherine, so it’s always going to be difficult, In the ideal world Darwin is the best place for a northern abattoir with its proximity to transport and infrastructure” Luke Bowen NTCA CEO34
- Export prices for steers ranged from $1.85/kg – $2.10/kg57
- 2010 Pastoral Industry survey57
- Katherine properties 78% Brahman, Top End 83% Brahman herds.57
- Turnoff to Live export – Katherine 80% of turnoff, Top End 87%, Barkly 39%, Alice Springs region 8%57
- August. Northern Territory cattle being sent interstate for processing58
- Between 30-50 decks of Territory cattle heading to QLD and NSW meatworks a week.58
- About 900-1500 head a week58
- Alice Springs had sent 10,000 head from Territory to South Australia and Victoria so far this year58
- Another 10,000 expected to follow over the next few months.58
- Teys decide to liquidate Katherine #2 and Innisfail abattoir (QLD)59, closed since 2006.
- Assets to be cut up and sold as scrap metal.59
- September – Assets sold from Katherine Abattoir7
Jo Bloomfield views.
Difficulty in re-establishment of this plant even though seemingly so much is still in place.
- Some equipment is gone from inside the abattoir, plate freezing facilities, some specialised equipment from the slaughter floor, boning and packing rooms.
- Technology is so out of date whole abattoir requires gutting, Ausmeat, CL, computerised technology and processing facility efficiency. Had assesments done for gas/refrigeration for Katherine and Batchalor – Batchalor was most feasible32.
- Feasiblity of Katherine estimates $40,000 a day just to run32.
- I would doubt that government would give permission to allow the abs to restart due to close proximity to the urban areas of Katherine.
- Effluent ponds and much of the outside landscape is changed too or removed. To meet Environmental requirements doubt if would be able to obtain permission.
- reportedly $20M to meet current AQIS requirements, unsure as to what capacity this was intended. Says needed substantial investment from government for water, electricity and gas supplies.
- Personal Communication #1 Oct 2012
- ‘Another northern Abattoir bites the dust’ABC rural 21.09.11
- Personal Communication. #2 Jan 2013
- ‘Sailing ahead’ Annabelle Coppin 2009
- ‘Teys Bros take back Katherine meat works’ Meat trade daily 14.08.10
- ‘Katherine abattoir set to reopen and go feral’ ABC rural. 07.06.10
- ‘Katherine abattoir finally put down’ ABC rural 15.09.11
- ‘Meat Monopolies’ Northern Standard 07.03.47
- ‘Katherine abattoir bought with high hopes’ ABC Rural 08.06.10
- ‘Katherine abattoir plans could create 200 jobs’ Nth QLD Register 18.06.10
- Royal Commission into Australian Meat Industry A Woodward 1982
- Personal Communication #3 Feb 2013
- ‘The Track: 1000 miles to war’ NT Library
- ‘Katherine abattoir plans shelved’ ABC rural. 15.07.10
- D.M Carment. Recollections. 2000.
- Katherine Museum. 25.02.13
- ‘Teys/CMG Merger’ QLD Country Life. 19.10.02
- ‘Feasibility study to determine Katherine Meatworks future’ NT country Hour 19.09.03
- ‘Future of Katherine meatworks still uncertain’ NT Country Hour 20.10.04
- ‘Camels on the agenda for Katherine abattoir’ ABC rural. 26.08.09
- ‘Teys kills off hopes of Katherine slaughterhouse’ NT Country Hour 12.02.04
- ‘Wild Cattle Wild Country’ Ann Marie Ingham. 2007
- ‘Katherines No lady’ Winsome Maff
- ‘The Big Run – The Story of VRD station’ Jock Makin 1970
- ‘Pastoral Australia: Fortunes, Failures & Hard Yakka: A historical view..” M. Pearson, J Lennon. 2010
- ‘Meatworks project for N. Territory’ The Canberra times. 21.11.52
- ‘Economics of Agricultural development in Northern Australia’ B Davidson 1974.
- ‘CMG new hope for Katherine’ QLD country life. 11.07.02
- Personal Communication – #3 17.03.13.
- Cattleproducer.wordpress.com Photos – 28.02.13
- Personal Communication. #4.23.03.13.
- ‘The Murrranji track – Ghost road of the drovers’ Darrell Lewis. 2007
- ‘Future Katherine abattoir no certainty’ www.efarming.com.au. 16.07.10
- ‘Tuxworth wants muslim meat market’ Katherine Times 13.10.1983
- ‘Buntine is back in transport business’ Katherine Times 24.11.1983
- ‘Collins on BTEC campaign’ Katherine Times 01.12.1983
- ‘Loss in beef exports’ Katherine Times 29.03.1984
- ‘Abattoirs’ Katherine Times 05.04.1984
- ‘Mack Superline in 17 metres’ Katherine Times 12.04.1984
- ‘Brucellosis and TB Funds’ Katherine Times 10.05.1984
- ‘Senator calls for increased BTEC funding’ Katherine Times 14.06.1984
- ‘Buffaloes Slaughtered’ Katherine Times 14.06.1984
- ‘Cattlemen meet in Katherine’ Katherine Times. 28.03.1985
- ‘Roger Steele meets with meatworkers’ Katherine Times 11.07.1983;
- ‘Station profile’ Katherine Times 06.06.1985
- ‘Cattle and Buffalo Market report’ Katherine Times 01.08.1985
- Editorial and letters to Editor. Katherine Times. 30.05.1985
- ‘Works sale halted’ Katherine Times 15.08.1985
- ‘Industry roped and ready for slaughter’ Katherine Times 22.08.1985
- ‘Proud to be a meatworker’ Katherine times 29.08.1985
- ‘Pendarvis worried despite picket retreat’ Katherine times 12.09.1985
- ‘NFF says arbitration should be bypassed’ Katherine Times 12.09.1985
- ‘Union to work meatworks’ Katherine Times 21.11.1985
- Advertisement, Katherine Times 28.11.1985
- ‘History of Katherine’ Katherine Times 12.06.2013
- ‘The Elsey and Gulf districts Cattle industry survey 1982’ Agdex 420/853. J.Mitchell.
- ‘Government’s lack of support hurt Katherine abattoir plan’ Willem Westra van Holthe MLA 04.08.2010
- ‘AAco on track for Darwin abattoir’ Beef Central 26.09.2011
- ‘The privileged few’ Jeff Hill, 2008m
- ‘World on a plate – A history of meat processing in Australia’ Stephen Martyn 2013
- Personal communication. J.Condon.
- ‘Opposition to abattoir’ Centralian Advocate 27.07.1962
- ‘Mr Playfair’s Injuries serious’ Centralian Advocate 27.07.1962
- Playfair descendants. www.airgate.com.au
- ‘FIDO president is NT land holder’ Centralian Advocate 26.06.1964