- Outbreak of pleuropneumonia – decimated herds in NSW4
- 1st Freezer works invented – Darling Harbour8
- Tick introduced on imported stock from Dutch Bativia4
- Tick Plague bought red water fever – killed many cattle, some pastoralists abandoned properties4
- 3 Zebu bulls introduced to QLD4
- 15 year contract with Australia – UK purchased all exportable beef surpluses8
- Large numbers of imports of Zebu to QLD4
- Refrigeration for long haul transports improved in efficiency and financially8
- Sheep prices soared £1 head – during Korean war10
- Britain won contracts in previous Australian export markets. USA developed ‘grinder beef’ allowed new markets for North Australia4
- Global demand for beef, boom lead to record cattle numbers in Australia8
- USA Lean beef market development8
- Australian Sheep herd 155M10
- Petrodollars Money – Middle East had significant discoveries of oil and lifted living standards in those countries, created a building boom, workers mainly from 3rd world muslim countries10 pg 28
- 1st shipment to Middle East. 2500 Australian sheep £6, 14 shillings and 4 pence a head including fodder for voyage10Pg 28
- UK – had outbreak of FMD8
- BTEC began – stopped 1989. Cost $800M
- Large cattle numbers and slaughter rates in 1970’s prompted significant expansion in processing capacity in QLD, with an increase in capacity of 32% between 1975 – 1982 (Rolfe 1988). The plants then faced work practices characterised by single shifts and a tight tally’s system. Most of the expansion met through construction of new plant, which was also needed to meet export standards in many of the overseas markets3
- Sheep live exports significant – Middle east, Cattle SE Asia8
- Economic downturn in the 70’s led to drops in global beef demand8
- 4 out of 5 meatworks in North Australia had their export licences withdrawn –
- “inability to fullfill obligations under the meat board diversification scheme in Australia”8
- Australian sheep herd 180M10Pg 37
- Australian sheep herd 142.3M10Pg 37
- Beef Crash – caused by major loss of markets USA & Japan, severe drought started. Cattle prices plunged to lowest level in 30 years.4
- Herd shrank by more than 60%5
- Oil prices crisis triggered global collapse4
- LE to SE Asia re-emerge on a small scale after years of inactivity5
- LE mainly to Malaysia, Philippines and then in early 90’s to Indonesia8
- National Beef herd 32.8M10Pg 42
- National Sheep herd 127.5M10 Pg 42
- AMIEU – picket line 4 weeks, prevented sheep being loaded onto ship, Feedlot Adelaide Virginia 90,000hd sheep. Were losing sheep due to rain and cold weather, Waterside workers unions also striked in support.Unions lead by Bob Hawke. Public rally supported by Farmers 10,000 against the union 4th April 1978. Operation Sheeplift – loaded at Wallaroo.10Pg 43
- Meat Processing in trouble – didn’t have enough outlets for all the meat it was processing, yet LE was thriving at significantly higher prices, LE was shipping aged merinos, not suitable to slaughter in Aust, AMIEU still picketed10Pg 49
- Cyclical downturn in slaughter numbers occurred in the early 1980’s, rationalisation was required. Industry commission inquiry in 1983 recommended market forces rather than government intervention be allowed to drive the changes.3
- Plant closures of the late 1980’s was in response to rationalisation pressures. Most plants that were closed were the older, inefficient plants that reached the end of their operating life(Reynolds and Sangster 1998b).3
- Australian Meat Holdings (AMH) formed – was pivotal in rationalising the meat processing sector in QLD– consortium of 4 meat processing companies, Including Elders (who bought other partners out in 1988) who then sold to USA processor (ConAgra)1993-1996.
1984 – 1986
- AMH closed 5 plants of the initial 11 owned by the consortium – utilisation rates had fallen to 32%
- By the 1990’s, plant closures tended to be forced by financial losses rather than operating inefficiencies3
- USA market health regulations forced many abattoirs across Australia to shut down8
(Not sure when actually occurred – ????????)
- Live cattle exports to Asia and Middle East 147,000hd1
- Live cattle exports to Asia and Middle east 290,000hd1
- Beginning of Enterprise Bargaining Agreements (EBA)
- disputes and lock out at Rockhampton AMH abattoir
- EBA’s introduced – Previously tally system has set rates of pay and also rate of productivity. Any new investment in efficiency meant workers just reached minimum tally in a shorter time. Tally system removed, increased production levels3.
- EBA allowed multiple shifts,reduced penalties and shift loads, longer working days and increased pay rates. 30-40% increase in effective capacity. Lead to 40% reduction in unit costs3.
- AMH if gained a 4% efficiency achieved a net gain of $62M over 10 years, industry wide net gain would yield $404 net gain3
- Innisfail Meatworks closed leaving Townsville as only Northern abattoir in QLD5.
“Last weeks QLD cattle kill of 43,700 hd was 40% below the same week last year, The extreme low rates of kill are also reflected in industry statistics showing that for the 3 months ended January 30, Australian beef exports to the US reached just 38,000t a far cry from the same period in 08/09 of 70,000t2
- Live Export ban to Indonesia.
- Carbon tax introduction – $23/t for over 25,000t of greenhouse emissions.Europe payint $9.80/t6
- Australian Export Meat Inspection System (AEMIS) introduced7
- “AEMIS utilises the presence of full-time government veterinarian assessing the incoming stock and oversighting the production and inspection process, and a full time government food safety meat assessor inspecting”7
- “The system is subject to external audits from senior Australian government veterinarians and by foreign officials representing many of our major trading partners”7
- One processor says will add $100,000 in costs over next 12 months7
- May. JBS arrived in Australia 2007, “despite $500m investment on improvements and upgrades, the cost of production of beef relative to major international competitors has actually worsened” JBS CEO Andre Nofueira12
- February. QLD cattlemarket indicator (QCMI) 1985 $70.80 buy the same amount of goods in todays $ would cost $180.70 – prices are 30% lower in real terms than what they were in 859
- March. Near record weekly kill tally – 81601, close to all time record July 200111
- Young cattle indicator slipped 12c/kg, some grids back by 20c/kg
- ‘The past is before us’, The Australian Society for the Study of Labour History. Undated
- ‘Abattoirs under stress’Beef Central 22.02.10
- Competition and Exit in Meat Processing:A QLD Case Study. Agribusiness review 1999
References with their articles (Rolfe 1988),(Reynolds and Sangster 1998b)
- ‘North’s Beef Powerhouse’ Nth QLD Register 22.11.12
- ‘100 years of Northern Beef Production’ Nth QLD Register 22.11.12
- ‘Processors beef with carbon tax’ Nth QLD Register 06.09.12
- ‘Exporters query E.coli blow-up’ QLD Country Life 31.05.12
- ‘Sailing ahead’ Annabelle Coppin 2009
- ‘Beef Prices at historic lows necessitates focus on cost of production’ Beef Central 18.02.13
- ‘The Australian Livestock Export trade’ Nigel Austin 2011
- ‘Record QLD kill reflects ‘avalanche’ or dry weather cattle’ Beef Central 19.03.13
- ‘JBS heads calls for industry-wide focus on competitiveness’ Beef Central 17.05.12
Closed Export accredited abattoir that processed beef.
It was intended to be upgraded in 1996 but closed in 1999 due to costs of processing.
- Aus-Meat accreditation
- Facility #7368.
- Export Abattoir. Beef8.
- Closed 19991.
- 13km N of Mussellbrook, 110 NW of Newcastle
Location relative to other abattoirs across Australia
Go to this link to view Australian Abattoir Locations
- Aberdeen Beef Company
- Australian Meat Holdings
- 361acres purchased. Australian Chilling and Freezing Co established1.
- First cargo of sheep and lambs processed1
1894 – 96
- Shut down due to drought and typhoid epidemic1
- Reopened after many more years of drought1
- Closed 5 months latter due to low supply1
- Began to process beef, rabbits and pigs, new areas of business also – butter1
- F.J Walker1
- Modernisation in CO2 to transport chilled produce
- New mutton slaughter house, plus tallow processing1
- “In NSW 20 abattoirs have ceased operations and 4,000 jobs lost” Mr John Barry Mildren (ALP) Ballarat7
- 27 meatworks has closed or forfeited export licences across Australia – loss of jobs of 10,571 people. Mr John Charles Kerin (ALP) Warriwa, Leader of opposition at the time7
- Up to 1984 all livestock processed for export and domestic1
- From 1984 on only cattle processed, graded, weighed, sliced, vacuum packed, blast frozen and stored for distribution1
- Elders traded under name Aberdeen Beef Company1
- AMH purchase the facility10
- AMH controlled by big US rural commodities trader – ConAgra, a major exporter from North America5
- AMH accounts for 16.5% of Australia’s beef kill.5
- currently owns another 8 facilities but will be consolidating to 5 and closing
- AMH continued to own
- and Aberdeen5
- Author note – not sure of 8th.
- Intended that 300 jobs would be replaced at Dinmore when expansion completed there10
- AMH undertaking a detailed study of redeveloping the Aberdeen plant, would require an additional $50M upgrade to become internationally competitive
- March 16. Six weeks prior to official closure meatworks had a temporary closure10
- April 16. Facility officially closes10
- 400 employees received no income for 6 weeks10
- Employees weren’t terminated, therefore didn’t qualify for social security10.
- Chief executive of AMH departs for an overseas trip the day of the Aberdeen abattoir closure10
- AMH weren’t interested in re-opening the works10
- More interested in bolstering other sites they owned at the time10
- AMH didn’t want to offer the facility to be leased but rather it be ‘mothballed’10
- AMH didn’t act in good faith of workers10.
- Aberdeen had a population of 1,70010
- 1 in 4 people in the town had been employed at the facility10.
- 109 year old landmark, 400 local jobs2
- More abattoirs could be threatened in meat industry shake-up.2
- Other abattoirs in Scone/Hunter area future may not be stable2
- NSW Opposition called on state government to push for further negotiations with AMH to persuade company to re-open.2
- Closure reason – cited as stock shortages.3
- AMH closed Aberdeen to send all cattle to Dinmore abattoir (QLD) – Even with added cost of cartage costs of processing were still $14 per head/cattle cheaper processed in QLD than NSW4
- November. Hon bob Carr MP, Premier of NSW announces a $12M NSW Meat processing Industry restructuring program to operate over a 3 year period9.
- Evident that the NSW Meat processing industry has and is likely to experience structural change. Rationalisation within the industry will most likely lead to a net reduction in the number of abattoirs and employee’s required9.
- Aberdeen. www.upperhuntertourism.com.au
- ‘Hunter’s Meat Axe’ Newcastle Herald 15.05.1999. www.abattoirs.com.au
- ‘State rule shut abattoir’ The land. 06.07.00
- US beef exporters force three abattoirs to close SMH 15.05.2013
- ‘Guyra abattoir closure’ Mr Raymond Chappell 15.05.96 www.parliment.nsw.gov
- Parliamentary Hansard, 20 August 1981. Pg 595 – 604
- Aus-Meat Accreditation List. November 1987.
- Industry training. Clements, Speers